English: The Joey and Toby Tannenbaum Opera Ce...

English: The Joey and Toby Tannenbaum Opera Centre at Front St. and Berkeley St. in Toronto (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

By Ben Gurglebop

Between them, these gals have 20 seasons at the Stratford Shakespeare Festival.
Roles include leading ladies in the Gilbert and Sullivan repertoire, Shakespeare’s canon and more. Other credits include: performing coast to coast, with multiple seasons in the Canadian Opera Company, at the Blyth Festival, with Drayton Entertainment and …They are delighted to return home.

Marion Day could be seen at the Blyth Festival in two plays last summer: The Hometown Project; Canadian Writers writing about their hometowns, with music by David Archibald, and Rope’s End; a poignant romantic comedy directed by Stratford’s Lee MacDougall. A veteran of the Stratford Festival (Juliet, Ophelia, Lavinia, Jessica, Celily Cardew and many other roles) Marion is delighted, as always, to be performing material from this wonderful time frame.

Carol McFadden is active as an educator and musical director. Currently, she is a vocal coach at University of Western Ontario, has been a part time faculty member at Wilfrid Laurier University and in the theatre divisions of Ryerson University and Sheridan College. She maintains a private studio teaching piano, voice and theory in London, Ontario. As Music Director for regional professional theatres, her selected favorites shows include, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, A Little Night Music, Nunsense, Nunsense 2, Forever Plaid, Dads…the Musical,and Once Upon a Mattress. Her accompanying skills are highly regarded and sought after in the classical, contemporary and musical theatre repertoire. In September, 2007, she assumed the duties of Director of Music/Organist at Forest Hill United Church. She graduated with the Master of Voice Pedagogy degree from Westminster Choir College in Princeton, New Jersey in May, 2007.

Barbara Dunn-Prosser’s performing career is a versatile one. She has appeared opposite Dmitri Hvorostovsky as Donna Elvira in Rhombus Media’s film of Mozart’s Don Giovanni and has toured southern Ontario with her one-woman show, Come to the Woods, about pioneer artist and writer Anne Langton. Barbara has been a featured soloist with symphony orchestras across North America, and a member of the acting company with the Stratford Shakespeare Festival for several seasons.  She has appeared with the Canadian Opera Company, and performed the role of Carlotta with both the touring and Toronto productions of The Phantom of the Opera.  In 2002, she released her CD Till We Meet Again.

Barbara currently teaches voice at the University of Western Ontario and privately in Stratford, Ontario.  She is a member of the College of Examiners for the Royal Conservatory of Music, The National Association of Teachers of Singing and has recently completed revising the Voice Syllabus for the RCM and compiling the new series of graded books.   

Eileen Smith has performed at the Banff, Charlottetown, Sunshine, Showboat and Stratford Festivals. Selected credits include: Drayton Entertainment production of Anne of Green Gables; The Sound of Music, Patience,The Gondoliers Inherit the Wind and Katisha in The Mikado for the Stratford Festival; Ma Bailey in It’s A Wonderful Life for The Grand Theatre, London; and over 40 productions with The Canadian Opera Company.


Bio II

Menotti was inspired by The Adoration of the M...

Menotti was inspired by The Adoration of the Magi (Hieronymus Bosch, died 1516) to create Amahl and the Night Visitors. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

By Ben Gurglebop

Carol McFadden is a collaborative pianist, music director, educator, worship arts coordinator. She holds a Master of Music degree specializing in voice pedagogy and degrees in Piano and Church Music.

Whether teaching piano, coaching singers or directing a musical group, I enjoy the process of providing guidance and opening new avenues of understanding and creativity that music provides.

Private studio lessons are available. We can meet to discuss and discover what musical goals you would like to attain. As an RCME (Royal Conservatory of Music) adjudicator, I can prepare students for piano, voice, theory examinations.

At the post-secondary level (university/college) level, I can help to prepare for auditions, recitals, juries, both classical and musical theatre. I also have experience in Commercial styles and Jazz.

Here are some music direction credits of shows with which I have been involved:

Nunsense and Nunsense II,The Secret Garden, Forever Plaid, Once upon a Mattress
Amahl and the Night Visitors, Hansel and Gretel

I have a passion for worship arts and liturgy and am also a choral director with considerable experience.

Some of the components of worship arts include Handbells, Drama, Liturgical Dance, Blended styles as well as Praise
Style worship; Instrumental music .
Choral components include working with professionals and volunteers in large choirs and in small group

Arranging and improvisation of various styles of music is also available.


By Ben Gurglebop

Carol McFadden, Consultant, has over 25 years experience in executive management in the public sector.  In addition, Carol has a wealth of experience in policy and program planning and implementation, business process analysis, and business continuity planning.

Carol’s career spans over 24 years with the Maricopa County Attorney’s Office, one of the largest prosecutor’s offices in the country.  Her responsibilities included:

· Over 10 years as executive manager responsible for Administration (including budget/finance, human resources, accounts payable, etc), Information Technology, Training and Development, and Research and Planning; and policy and program development and implementing large, department-wide plans such as business continuity plans, compensation plans and large scale information technology integration projects.

· Over 14 years managing a large division providing victims’ assistance and victim compensation services.

Prior to joining JPM & Associates, Carol worked for Maricopa County Department Public Health as the Professional and Technical Services Division Administrator.  In this capacity, she was responsible for policy development, business continuity planning as well as the management of Information Technology, Risk Management, Public Information and Facilities Management.

Carol has a Master’s Degree in Social Work, specializing in planning, administration and community development.

Other Activities and Awards
Casa Center for the Prevention of Abuse and Violence, Board Member, 2006 to present

Maricopa County Attorney’s Distinguished Service Award, 2004

Violence Prevention Initiative, Executive Committee and Steering Committee member, 1997 to 2002

Governor’s Commission on Violence Against Women, member 1993 to 2001

Drugs Don’t Work in Arizona, Board Member 1999 to 2001

Institute for Public Executives, Arizona State University, 1999

Valley Leadership, Graduate of Class XIX, June 1998


By Ben Gurglebop

It has been four months since the ‘Unlimited’ commissions were shown as part of the Cultural Olympiad, followed by the Unlimited festival at London’s Southbank Centre. Looking back, how do Jo Verrent, Luke Pell, Wendy Martin, Tony Heaton and Carol McFadden, five of the key ‘movers and shakers’ behind Unlimited, feel about its impact on disability arts? Nina Muehlemann has spoken to them on behalf of DAO to find out.

Jo Verrent was on the Unlimited selection panel, worked as an advisor to Southbank Centre for the Unlimited Festival, and has curated the PUSH ME films, of which the latest one, a half hour documentary, was released in November.

Talking about her expectations for Unlimited, Jo says her main hope was that Unlimited would do for disabled artists what the Paralympics did for disabled athletes – to put them, as equals to their nondisabled peers, under a national spotlight. She told me:

“I think that was the hope of Unlimited, putting in so much, not just resources to make the commissions happen, but the critical mass of so much happening at the same time, and the individual support that went into the commissions alongside the artistic work – the mentoring, the pairing with mainstream producers, so that the pieces themselves would be exceptional, and then the critical mass of so many pieces would really mean we could not go back.

“Caroline Bowditch put it very well when she said ‘there is no retreat from this, I cannot make tiny, unimportant work in a shed anymore’. There is no retreat, and that’s for her as an artist, but also all the people that she has worked with. Having allowed in a disabled artist, having seen the quality of the work, you cannot go back to a position where you think that it is all a bit crap.”

In terms of expectations or concerns for Unlimited, Tony Heaton, CEO of Shape, hadn’t any. He explained:

“I just wanted all the projects to be really successful. For once, there was a reasonable amount of money injected into the sector, it was just important that the commissions evolved. It was something that has never been done before, a unique event – but I did not really have concerns as such. I did not know what to expect, but neither did anyone else, we were all in the same boat.”

Luke Pell, who was commissioned to evaluate the Unlimited Festival at the Southbank Centre and facilitated some of the talks and discussions during the festival, had high expectations for the programme, because it showcased a diversity around disability arts that is unusual for a mainstream arts venue. He told me:

“One of my hopes was to see some people who are not the usual suspects – there are the well-known companies like Candoco or Graeae, who are used to present work on a larger scale, but I was excited to see what else was going to come through. I was also excited by the whole spectrum of the work – that it was not art form specific, and there was work by people with such different artistic backgrounds and pathways, and different positions on disability.

“There were people who have lived with a disability their whole lives, there were acquired disabilities, there were artists who foregrounded disability politics in their work, there were others who did not foreground that in their work, and there were people who had never presented their work under a disability arts label before – So I was really interested in what that might yield, and how the works might respond to each other.”

That spectrum of work, however, also meant that there was an extraordinary amount of planning and learning to do for everyone involved. The artists were asked to produce work on a big scale and to push their boundaries, and so was the Southbank Centre London.

Wendy Martin, head of performance and dance at the Southbank Centre, admits that making the Unlimited festival happen required a big effort, but that it was absolutely worth it because so much was learnt in the process. She said:

“I think everybody at Southbank Centre, from the Chief Executive Officer to the front of house staff, were deeply committed to making the festival work, and we did an extraordinary amount of work in the lead-up to the festival, so that people had a very special experience, and I think that paid off.

“We had a lot of training sessions, and I thought the feedback we got from audiences and the artists really showed that that paid off. We learnt an enormous deal while putting the festival together. It changed the physical nature of entering some of our venues, we created a website unique to Unlimited so that it was as accessible as possible, we tried to make the venues as accessible as possible. And we will never put on an event now without making those considerations; it has become a part of our thinking.

“We are in the process of organising a renovation for the Purcell Room and the Queen Elizabeth Hall, and everything that we learnt during Unlimited will go into the renovation of those two venues. By the time they reopen, the Southbank Centre will hopefully be fully and utterly accessible to everyone. But I think the deep resonance with Southbank Centre lies in the work that we saw here, the quality of discussion and debate.“

Tony Heaton doubts whether Unlimited gave a better profile to disability arts, because the difference between disability arts and art by disabled people got lost in the programme. He explained further:

“The projects were the ideas of disabled people, but not all projects could be defined as disability art. I don’t think people get that distinction – disability arts is art by disabled people that specifically says something about the experience of being disabled, in the social sense.”

However, he still regards Unlimited as a huge success and told me:

“We managed to pull good, creative work by disabled people in front of a huge audience. That’s what we need – our work does not usually get that publicity, nor does it get that kind of investment in it.”

For Jo Verrent, branding the art as ‘disability arts’ was a strong, important message that all the commissions carried. However, this was also seen as a bit of a gamble. She clarified this for me:

“I think there was a real risk around the Southbank Festival – do we bring the work together? Having said we don’t want a ghetto, what do we risk and gain by putting it all together? We gain that critical mass, we gain that public exposure, but we also risk alienating artists who are disabled artists but do not want to fit within that ‘disability arts’ box, who have made a very clear statement that this is not where they place their work, and putting them back in it, that is a real risk too.”

Other concerns around Unlimited persist, as Luke Pell admits:

“I was worried about expectation and the vulnerability of the artists. The other think I kept thinking about was what would happen after. There is this level of focus and attention, and then, what next? I think for some of the artists there are enough people who saw the work, and there will be opportunities.

“Most of the artists I have spoken to need to recover, and that’s fine, but the question remains: What next? And also, thinking about generations: If you are an artist, or a younger person, who saw that work, and you think ‘ah, great, I want to do that, where do I go?’ where are we addressing that?”

Tony Heaton stresses, for the same reasons, the importance of support for artists, whether they had Unlimited commissions or not. He told me:

“we continue working with the artists – we got this huge exhibition at Gracechurch Street right now – we got five floors showing works by roughly 30 artists, and a number of them had Unlimited commissions – but lots of them did not, and it is very important now to give a profile to that work, too.”

The commissions showed that the potential of disability arts is indeed without limits, but Jo Verrent stresses the fact that Unlimited could not have happened without all the support it received, support that is hard to get at the moment. Talking about the legacy of Unlimited, she says:

“I think it depends on what happens next. It depends on what the Arts Council does next, it depends on what Southbank Centre does next, it depends on what happens in relations to the cuts that we have – the next three or four years will be tough, and it’s a difficult situation that we are in.

“One of the things Unlimited did have that we didn’t have before was actually quite a lot of money. Personally, I think it would be a mistake to have Unlimited at the Southbank every year, but I do think we learnt something about the power of critical mass.

“I hope Southbank takes – as it said it would do – some of the work and puts it within its mainstream festivals. I hope that in a couple of years, we would have enough new work to bring it back together again. I think the bigger changes will be more subtle – they will be with a number of venues, promoters and producers who’ve worked with disabled artists and through that work had their opinions changed. The impact they can have, in terms of legacy work, is more profound, because it has got a longer life to it.

“All the international delegates will have seen work to inspire them to bring that forward, and I already know of shifts and changes in Spain, Hong Kong, South Africa, Palestine, Dubai. Things have happened because of it. So definitely, there’s a wave. Not everything is going to work everywhere. The impact there might be the creation of work that is locally specific – we cannot expect our view of the world to immediately resonate around the world.”

Carol McFadden, whose work for the British Council focused on International Unlimited commissions, is optimistic about the international impact of Unlimited and told me:

“The Unlimited Festival provided the British Council with an excellent opportunity to identify new partners to invite to London and build new relationships with. While some of these partners may already be engaged with the disability agenda in their own countries, staff were encouraged to consider partners from mainstream venues and festivals who were interested in programming high quality work and building new audiences as well as a professional development opportunity for staff to see the work ‘live’ and network with artists and key figures in the UK disability sector.

“Since the Unlimited Festival came to a close, several strong proposals are in the planning stage for 2013/14 and 2014/15. These include seasons or work in Qatar 2013, Europe, South Africa, Brazil and Australia as well as opportunities for speakers and advocates for the UK disability sector to participate on panels and debates to promote and stimulate discussion on disability issues in an international context.”

While Tony Heaton is slightly sceptical whether Unlimited has had an influence on cultural life in the UK, he too has higher hopes for its international impact. He said:

“I think it will have a big impact on the next Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio, because the delegates came and saw what happened here, and took careful notice of it. We put some legacy documents together, we’ve written an evaluation for the British Council, and we are also in conversation with people in Rio, so hopefully Shape’s expertise can be useful for Rio 2016.”

In Luke Pell’s opinion, the international impact of Unlimited might be more subtle and happen more slowly. He told me:

“It would be naïve to think that we can directly extrapolate what was done here and implant it somewhere else. It shows a possibility of what can happen when things start to shift, but they have to shift in relationship to where people are at now in other countries, and that takes time.”

But he also stresses the importance of the link between Unlimited and the Paralympics, and how Unlimited, paired with the Paralympics, showed a very broad spectrum of disabled identity and of the work of disabled people. He added:

“I think politically, it is great that Unlimited happened at the same time as the Paralympics, partly because what we saw at Unlimited was very different to the values that are celebrated in the Paralympics. What it did prove is that we can deliver in this country on both; the UK is still one of leading countries in terms of this work and this way of thinking around disability. Unlimited has underlined the work that has been done in the part 40 years, and I think everyone involved realised that we are only here because of what has been done before.

“It also aligned well with the fact that the arts council launched a creative case for diversity last year – I think you could see a creative case for diversity across the Unlimited programme. Strategically, those artists are well networked now and have partners and supporters across the UK.”

The hope that Unlimited facilitated contacts between artists, venues and producers is shared by Carol McFadden, and in addition to that she hopes that it has brought on a change of attitude. She told me:

“Audiences are more open and receptive to seeing high quality work by Deaf and disabled artists. I hope that venue programmers, especially those from mainstream venues and festivals, will programme work for its high quality creative ideas and content and not label it as work by Deaf and disabled artists.”

Wendy Martin, who was in charge of the programme for the Unlimited festival at the Southbank Centre, assures that Unlimited has already brought on changes for the Southbank Centre in terms of programming. She said:

“My eyes were really opened to the whole range of artists, and I got to know them very well and very intimately, so of course I am going to follow their careers and look out for other artists I have been made aware of because of the international delegates – this Christmas, we got the Rhinestone Rollers performing in the Clore Ballroom, so we are very consciously looking for strong work by Deaf and disabled artists – it is in our DNA now, it’s part of what we do – We have done it before, but this has really fired us up to make sure that there is a strong legacy – that those weren’t just 11 fantastic days in 2012.”

A strong legacy was a huge concern for Jo Verrent from the beginning of the planning for Unlimited, and the reason she came up with the idea for the Push Me films. Jo told me:

“When I was on the panel, making the selection of the astounding work that was going to happen, I had a concern that we could have all this amazing work happen, and then it would go away – what would the legacy be? How could it be captured? Push Me, I suppose, was my response to that, trying to find a way to maximize the legacy of some of this work.

“I wanted to be involved in something that would take the work to people who wouldn’t normally go and see it, that would take it out of ‘simply’ a disability frame, maybe enable it to reach other arts audiences. So when The Space came along, it seemed like a really good space to put in a bid, to see whether we could make that happen.”

This involved a bit of a risk, since she had to approach an arts organisation to work alongside her, someone she had never worked with before. She added:

“We approached Watershed and after some conversations, they said that it was a great opportunity for them, and it was for us as well, because we did what we meant Push Me to do, namely to make contacts within a wider field. So we were kind of doing what we wanted the project to do, and we had to do that first in order to make the project happening.

“Videos are archived; you can go back and find them, particularly work that’s made for the internet. The idea was also to create something that people could refer to as benchmark that would make them say: ‘Oh look where we got to in 2012!’”

All five of the movers and shakers agree that Unlimited was a massive success, which has met or succeeded their expectations. The most surprising outcome seems to be the sense of community that arose during the festival at the Southbank.

Tony Heaton calls it “a massive team effort”, and Wendy Martin assures that that sense of generosity and community between everyone involved, whether it was behind the scenes, in the audience or on a stage, was something she did not expect, and found all the more touching. She told me:

“I think it is generally agreed amongst the Southbank Centre, that out of the huge amount of events we had during the summer, the most successful was Unlimited, and that is largely so because of the sense of community there was between the artists and the audience. People seemed to becoming back, and artists seemed to be going to each other’s shows.

“There was an enormous spirit of generosity around the events, and if we could achieve that across all our festivals in the future, we would be very happy indeed. As a programmer, I was here all day every day, and I was talking to the audiences, and I was talking to the artists. And what touched me the most was the feedback from the artists – I think nobody quite expected the incredible atmosphere and the sense of community.

“We couldn’t have asked for more. The thing that I realized is the importance of the funding support for artists, whether disabled or not.  What Unlimited showed was that if artists who are talented are properly supported, they are able to fly.”

History of Cheese

By Ben Gurglebop

Carol McFadden history history of cheese. Cheese is an ancient food whose origins predate recorded history. There is no conclusive evidence indicating where cheesemaking originated, either in Europe, Central Asia or the Middle East, but the practice had spread within Europe prior to Roman times and, according to Pliny the Elder, had become a sophisticated enterprise by the time the Roman Empire came into being.

The earliest evidence of cheese-making in the archaeological record dates back to 5,500 BCE, in what is now Kujawy, Poland, where strainers with milk fats molecules have been found. Earliest proposed dates for the origin of cheesemaking range from around 8000 BCE, when sheep were first domesticated. Since animal skins and inflated internal organs have, since ancient times, provided storage vessels for a range of foodstuffs, it is probable that the process of cheese making was discovered accidentally by storing milk in a container made from the stomach of an animal, resulting in the milk being turned to curd and whey by the rennet from the stomach. There is a legend – with variations – about the discovery of cheese by an Arab trader who used this method of storing milk.

Cheesemaking may have begun independently of this by the pressing and salting of curdled milk to preserve it. Observation that the effect of making milk in an animal stomach gave more solid and better-textured curds may have led to the deliberate addition of rennet.

Early archeological evidence of cheesemaking has been found in Egyptian tomb murals, dating to about 2000 BCE. The earliest cheeses were likely to have been quite sour and salty, similar in texture to rustic cottage cheese or feta, a crumbly, flavorful Greek cheese.

Cheese produced in Europe, where climates are cooler than the Middle East, required less salt for preservation. With less salt and acidity, the cheese became a suitable environment for useful microbes and molds, giving aged cheeses their respective flavors.

Ancient Greek mythology credited Aristaeus with the discovery of cheese. Homer’s Odyssey (8th century BCE) describes the Cyclops making and storing sheep’s and goats’ milk cheese. From Samuel Butler’s translation:

“ We soon reached his cave, but he was out shepherding, so we went inside and took stock of all that we could see. His cheese-racks were loaded with cheeses, and he had more lambs and kids than his pens could hold…

When he had so done he sat down and milked his ewes and goats, all in due course, and then let each of them have her own young. He curdled half the milk and set it aside in wicker strainers.”

By Roman times, cheese was an everyday food and cheesemaking a mature art. Columella’s De Re Rustica (circa 65 CE) details a cheesemaking process involving rennet coagulation, pressing of the curd, salting, and aging. Pliny’s Natural History (77 CE) devotes a chapter (XI, 97) to describing the diversity of cheeses enjoyed by Romans of the early Empire. He stated that the best cheeses came from the villages near Nîmes, but did not keep long and had to be eaten fresh. Cheeses of the Alps and Apennines were as remarkable for their variety then as now. A Ligurian cheese was noted for being made mostly from sheep’s milk, and some cheeses produced nearby were stated to weigh as much as a thousand pounds each. Goats’ milk cheese was a recent taste in Rome, improved over the “medicinal taste” of Gaul’s similar cheeses by smoking. Of cheeses from overseas, Pliny preferred those of Bithynia in Asia Minor.
Cheese, Tacuinum sanitatis Casanatensis (14th century)

As Romanized populations encountered unfamiliar newly-settled neighbors, bringing their own cheese-making traditions, their own flocks and their own unrelated words for cheese, cheeses in Europe diversified further, with various locales developing their own distinctive traditions and products. As long-distance trade collapsed, only travelers would encounter unfamiliar cheeses: Charlemagne’s first encounter with a white cheese that had an edible rind forms one of the constructed anecdotes of Notker’s Life of the Emperor. The British Cheese Board claims that Britain has approximately 700 distinct local cheeses; France and Italy have perhaps 400 each. (A French proverb holds there is a different French cheese for every day of the year, and Charles de Gaulle once asked “how can you govern a country in which there are 246 kinds of cheese?”) Still, the advancement of the cheese art in Europe was slow during the centuries after Rome’s fall. Many cheeses today were first recorded in the late Middle Ages or after— cheeses like Cheddar around 1500 CE, Parmesan in 1597, Gouda in 1697, and Camembert in 1791.

In 1546, The Proverbs of John Heywood claimed “the moon is made of a greene cheese.” (Greene may refer here not to the color, as many now think, but to being new or unaged.) Variations on this sentiment were long repeated and NASA exploited this myth for an April Fools’ Day spoof announcement in 2006.

Until its modern spread along with European culture, cheese was nearly unheard of in east Asian cultures, in the pre-Columbian Americas, and only had limited use in sub-Mediterranean Africa, mainly being widespread and popular only in Europe, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, and areas influenced by those cultures. But with the spread, first of European imperialism, and later of Euro-American culture and food, cheese has gradually become known and increasingly popular worldwide, though still rarely considered a part of local ethnic cuisines outside Europe, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, and the Americas.

The first factory for the industrial production of cheese opened in Switzerland in 1815, but it was in the United States where large-scale production first found real success. Credit usually goes to Jesse Williams, a dairy farmer from Rome, New York, who in 1851 started making cheese in an assembly-line fashion using the milk from neighboring farms. Within decades hundreds of such dairy associations existed.

The 1860s saw the beginnings of mass-produced rennet, and by the turn of the century scientists were producing pure microbial cultures. Before then, bacteria in cheesemaking had come from the environment or from recycling an earlier batch’s whey; the pure cultures meant a more standardized cheese could be produced.

Factory-made cheese overtook traditional cheesemaking in the World War II era, and factories have been the source of most cheese in America and Europe ever since. Today, Americans buy more processed cheese than “real”, factory-made or not.

Carol McFadden Book List

Margaret Sutton biography, c.1944, from flap o...

Margaret Sutton biography, c.1944, from flap of Gail Gardner book dust jacket (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

By Ben Gurglebop

Carol McFadden books list. Carol McFadden bibliography includes all books by Carol McFadden. Book list may include collections, editorial contributions, etc – any type of book or journal citing Carol McFadden as a writer should appear on this list, in alphabetical order. The full bibliography of the author Carol McFadden below includes book jacket images whenever possible. Depending on the writer and type of writing, this Carol McFadden reading list could include fiction, nonfiction, novels, literature, etc and may include a few different editions of a given book, though it is not a definitive list with regards to editions of book titles. List ranges from Test item file for the fourth edition of Keeton/Gould’s Biological science to Biology, plus much more. You’re able to copy this factual list to make your own just like it, re-rank it to fit your opinions, then publish it to share with your friends.


By Ben Gurglebop

Archibald McFadden is an American polo player. He was inducted into the Museum of Polo and Hall of Fame. Carol McFadden is also an avid polo player.

Born in Mays, North Carolina, he learned the sport from his parents, Louise and Archibald McFadden, Sr.. His father was a U.S. Racing Hall of Fame horse trainer who had been a 10-goal player who helped found the Meadow Polo Club in New York and who captained the American team in the International Polo Cup.
A group of girls about to step onto the polo g…

A group of girls about to step onto the polo grounds in Maple Plain, MN as part of the annual “Polo Classic” fundraising event. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

McFadden attended St. Paul’s School where he played football, hockey and was a member of the crew team. After being elected president of the Sixth Form, McFadden chose to leave school.

He study at Harvard University. Playing polo, he led the U.S. team to victory in the International Polo Cup.  McFadden carried a 10-goal handicap, which is the highest ranking in polo, from the United States of America Polo Association. Playing with notable stars.

Archibald talks about polo  is a team sport played on horseback in which the objective is to score goals against an opposing team. Sometimes called “The Sport of Kings”, it was started by Persians, and was popular in Iran until 1979, after which its popularity there declined sharply due to the Iranian Revolution. Players score by driving a small white plastic or wooden ball into the opposing team’s goal using a long-handled mallet. The traditional sport of polo is played at speed on a large grass field up to 300 yards long by 160 yards wide, and each polo team consists of four riders and their mounts. Field polo is played with a solid plastic ball, which has replaced the wooden ball in much of the sport. In arena polo, only three players are required per team and the game usually involves more maneuvering and shorter plays at lower speeds due to space limitations of the arena. Arena polo is played with a small air-filled ball, similar to a small soccer ball. The modern game lasts roughly two hours and is divided into periods called chukkas (occasionally rendered as “chukkers”). Polo is played professionally in 16 countries. It was formerly, but is not currently, an Olympic sport.

He has been also teaching his daighter Willa McFadden how to play the game for years. She also talks about the game Each team consists of four mounted players, which can be mixed teams of both men and women.

Each position assigned to a player has certain responsibilities:

Number One is the most offence-oriented position on the field. The Number One position generally covers the opposing team’s Number Four.
Number Two has an important role in offence, either running through and scoring themselves, or passing to the Number One and getting in behind them. Defensively, they will cover the opposing team’s Number Three, generally the other team’s best player. Given the difficulty of this position, it is not uncommon for the best player on the team to play Number Two so long as another strong player is available to play Three.
Number Three is the tactical leader and must be a long powerful hitter to feed balls to Number Two and Number One as well as maintaining a solid defence. The best player on the team is usually the Number Three player, usually wielding the highest handicap.

Number Four is the primary defence player. They can move anywhere on the field, but they usually try to prevent scoring. The emphasis on defence by the Number Four allows the Number Three to attempt more offensive plays, since they know that they will be covered if they lose the ball.

Polo Match

Polo Match (Photo credit: Wikipedia)